There are increasingly more studies about how to overpass rivals on quality and efficiency, make breakthrough in key industrial technology, and boost the conversion from science to innovation, by supporting the research of basic science. However, there are few studies about how to make scientific research acquire legitimacy and specifically what kind of legitimacy. Longitudinally focusing on the quantum technology according to the stage characteristics of legitimacy formation and the legitimacy bases, this study analyzed the relationships among money, institution, industry, and talent (MIIT), as well as their interactions and consequences. This study has two findings: (1) In the process of legalization, the interaction mode of MIIT alters with the change of subjects’ role, motive, and behavior pattern; the evolution of the interaction mode enhances the research capability of science and technology; the interactions of MIIT directly lead to cognitive legitimacy, and the interactions helps to develop norm legitimacy and regulation legitimacy by boosting the research capability and outcome. (2) Legitimacy is a continuous variable, and there is a tendency that its extent and scope increase along the process of legalization. The main contribution of this study relies on the analysis of the micro mechanism of legitimacy formation and evolution, and the finding of legitimacy’s evolution pattern.